Law is a system of rules that are enforceable through social institutions. Laws shape economics, politics, society, and history. It serves to protect individual rights, maintain orderly social change, and promote social justice. These purposes are achieved in different ways in each legal system. Some legal systems serve these purposes more effectively than others.
Law is divided into three categories: statutes, case law, and regulations. Each has its own set of rules that govern interpretation and reasoning. A statute is a written document that defines the law. A case is a ruling made by a court regarding a specific issue. The authority of a case depends on several factors, including the age of the decision, its closeness to facts, and the persuasiveness of its precedents. A regulation deals with the provision of public services. The industries regulated include water, gas, telecomms, and energy.
A legal issue arises when a person is accused of a crime, is involved in a lawsuit, or encounters unexpected events. A legal issue may be relatively simple, such as an unexpected illness, or more complicated, such as the right to inherit property. It is possible to find out more about a legal issue through the help of a lawyer, but some issues are surprisingly difficult to interpret.
In general, the practice of law is governed by government. Lawyers typically hold an academic degree, such as a Master of Laws, or a Doctor of Laws, and must pass a qualifying examination. They also have a professional identity that is distinct from other professionals. A modern attorney should also have a Bachelor of Law or Bachelor of Civil Law.
Law is a political science that describes the relationship between social institutions and individuals. It is a complex subject that involves several areas of study. Some of these include constitutional law, business law, civil procedure, criminal law, environmental law, taxation, and judicial decision-making.
The three main branches of government are executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive and legislative branches are responsible for making and enforcing laws, while the judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the law. Each of these branches carries out its own duties, but all three work together to ensure that the rule of law is enforced.
A common law legal system is one that explicitly recognizes decisions by the courts as “law.” It is a more straightforward legal system. These systems usually make a distinction between law and precedent. A law is defined by a statute, and a precedent is a legal issue that is based on a judicial decision. It is often the case that a judge in a common law jurisdiction will analyze a particular legal issue by looking at the preceding precedents.
The concept of “natural law” originated in ancient Greek philosophy. It later reemerged in the mainstream culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas. It is a principle governing the relationship between human beings and the natural world.
In the United States, competition law is known as antitrust law. This is a broader area of law that covers businesses that distort market prices. A number of laws and regulations, such as those regulating mergers and acquisitions, are derived from the United States’ anti-cartel statutes of the turn of the 20th century.